The gems are almost all minerals, characterized by a crystalline structure and with ornamental qualities. The distinction between precious and semiprecious gems is purely commercial and it is through this that are considered as precious gems the diamond , the ruby , the sapphire and emerald. Before the creation of the jewel, it is necessary that the gems are cut and polished. As for diamonds, gems can also be classified according to 4C: color, cut, clearity, carat.
Gemstone color (tint-tone-saturation)
The main factors that determine the color of a precious stone are the tone, the tone and the saturation .
With hue we mean the primary base color of the gem , that is one of those that are part of the main color range. To indicate the tonality means to say that a stone is blue, red, green or yellow. With tone instead the intensity of the color is indicated , whether it is light or dark. What is considered more precious is the neutral tone, but in this case also aesthetic factors can come into play, as well as the setting of the jewel. The saturation finally corresponds to the purity of the color : if the precious stones have an excellent saturation, they contain scarce or clear shades of brown or gray color. The purer and the more precious the precious stone will be .
Cut of the Gemma (Cut)
As for diamonds, gems can be classified into 4 types of cut: excellent, excellent, good and discreet . The higher the quality of the cut, the greater the value of the stones: an excellent cut reflects the quality of the precious stone, because it intensifies the color and improves the overall visual appearance.
CLARITY OF THE GEM (CLEARITY)
The clarity of the gem refers to the color and clarity of the stone . Less impurity will have inside, more precious is the stone. The clarity of the stone depends on its cleanliness and is classified as AAA in the case of very clean stones, while the clarity AA refers to semi-clean stones.
Carat of weight
The carat refers to the mass of the precious stone : this is because the density varies according to the type of stone. For example, a diamond is less dense than a ruby, so a 1 carat diamond will be larger than a 1 carat ruby.
The emerald owes its name to the Greek word smaragdos , which means “green gem” and falls among the 4 precious stones, with diamonds, sapphires and rubies. Today these stones can be found mainly in Colombia, Zambia, Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Tanzania and the United States.
A stone held in high esteem since ancient times: emeralds were Cleopatra’s favorites , they were associated with exceptional healing powers and even today they are a symbol of love and success. Emeralds also represent peace, loyalty, commitment, friendship, loyalty and compassion and are one of the favorite choices for engagement rings .
Blue is the color most commonly associated with sapphire (the name derives from the Latin sapphirus , or blue), even if there are other shades. Among the 4 C with which the gems are classified (color, cut, clarity and carats), the color is the most important property of the sapphire: the most precious ones have a beautiful vivid color and without grayish hues.Today these precious stones are found in Sri Lanka, Vietnam, China, Thailand, Australia, the United States, Madagascar and East Africa.
Sapphire is a symbol of commitment, loyalty and pure love and for this it is used a lot as a stone for engagement rings: famous that of Kate Middleton, received by Prince William of England. Sapphires are considered as stones that lower anxiety and calm the nerves, help digestion and give energy.
Like the other main precious stones, the ruby takes its name from its color ( rubeus in Latin means red). Ruby, like sapphire, belongs to the corundum family ; the most precious ones are those of color “pigeon’s blood” , of a red so intense that it does not have any shade in yellow or blue. The places where the rubies are found are Myanmar, Madagascar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Vietnam and the United States.
Given its color, ruby is often chosen as a stone for engagement rings , it is a strong symbol of passion and love, traditionally given for the fifteenth and fortieth anniversary of marriage. Moreover, it is considered a stone of love and passion, aphrodisiac and that provides energy and enthusiasm. Among the healing properties, that of lowering fevers and improving blood flow.